Thursday, March 12, 2020
Probability and Sampling Distributions Essays - Sampling STAT 1350: Elementary Statistics Lab Activity #___________ Name(s)_________________________ Probability and Sampling Distributions Date ___________________________ A recent Gallup Poll asked a simple random sample of 1600 American adults, Have you, yourself smoked any cigarettes in the past week? Suppose that in fact 20% of all American adults would answer yes if asked this question. The proportion of the sample who answers yes will vary in repeated sampling. To investigate this, we simulated 1000 samples of size n = 1600 from a population in which 20% would answer yes they smoked cigarettes in the past week. The results of this simulation are provided in the table below. Please fill in the percentage column and write your answers as decimals rounded to three places. Class for Frequency (of the 1000 samples)Percentage 0.165 to 0.1701 0.170 to 0.1756 0.175 to 0.18022 0.180 to 0.18558 0.185 to 0.19089 0.190 to 0.195146 0.195 to 0.200178 0.200 to 0.205182 0.205 to 0.210160 0.210 to 0.21581 0.215 to 0.22049 0.220 to 0.22517 0.225 to 0.2307 0.230 to 0.2354 Please graph the distribution on the previous page with a histogram in the grid below. Place the classes of the sample proportion on the x-axis (make each bar a width of one block) and the frequencies on the y-axis (make each block a frequency of 10). Once you have drawn the histogram, draw the density curve on the histogram that describes this distribution. It turns out that the sampling distribution of for this scenario is a Normal distribution with mean 0.20 and standard deviation 0.01. Use this information to answer the following questions: Questions: 1.Find probability that at least 0.22 of the sample smokes: a)Using the 68-95-99.7 Rule. Make sure to sketch the density curve and shade the area of interest. b)Using the results of the simulation. 2.Find probability that fewer 0.19 of the sample smokes: a)Using the 68-95-99.7 Rule. Make sure to sketch the density curve and shade the area of interest. b)Using the results of the simulation. 3.Find probability that between 0.18 and 0.22 of the sample smokes: a)Using the 68-95-99.7 Rule. Make sure to sketch the density curve and shade the area of interest. b)Using the results of the simulation. 4.Are the results for parts a) and b) EXACTLY the same for questions #1, #2, #3 above? 5.Why is there a difference between the results for parts a) and b) for each question above? 6.What would happen to the results for parts a) and b) if we simulated 50000 samples of size n = 1600 from a population in which 20% would answer yes they smoked cigarettes in the past week. 7.What statistical principle explains the answers to questions #5 and #6?
Monday, February 24, 2020
For Week 5 - Coursework Example The consumers are aware of their involvement with finance as operations between the parties are transparent. Banks provide ideal information for credit, mortgages and advice on risky investments making consumers have good decision-making in the economy. Business cycles are the fluctuations that an economy experiences over a particular period. In United States, it is usually measured by the national bureau of economic research (NBER) often noted by expansion and recession. The cycle begins with development that shows an economic growth of high income, reduction of unemployment and increased productivity while depression refers to contraction of the exceeding highlighted indicators. For expansion, it is the time from one trough of the previous cycle to peak of the current cycle, and the vice-versa is true for recession. Economists believe that workers should be compensated according to the output of the firm or the economy. Hence, as labor productivity increases, wages should rise in equal measure that has not been the case in the United States (Basu, & Foley, 2013). Inflation has been on the rise while wages are relatively constant over the past few decades; hence their consumption power is reduced as they cannot purchase the bundles of goods as before. Due to this, workers have to worry about their production in the
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Walmart Undergoing Change - Case Study Example It is expected that this change will greatly improve the performance and the competitive advantage of the company in the business environment. The needs of employees are often met by the leadership of a company or organization. The needs of employees within Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s different functional areas will therefore be met under a unified team of leaders. There are diverse needs among employees such as effective compensation, benefits, good working environment and suitable working hours. These needs would be affected by the new leadership structure. For example the needs of employees within the Logistics function are likely to be different from those within the Real Estate function. In order for these change to be effective, it is therefore necessary for the company leadership to effectively communicate with employees and understand their needs so that an effective plan for meeting them would be implemented (Vakola & Nikolaou, 2009). Since the organizational change at Wal-Mart is aimed at improving the service delivery to the customers, it is evident that the company is likely to recruit new employees to ensure that this objective is achieved effectively. The management of organizational change includes meeting the training needs of new employees (Tsoukas & Chia, 2008). This means that the new leadership team within Wal-Mart will be responsible for developing a training program in which the skills and knowledge of new employees on the job will be effectively attained. In the selection of new employees, the company must adhere to the recruitment policies within its policy notebook. This means that the required level of education, experience, skills or knowledge for the various functional areas of the company must be exhibited by the new employees. The recruitment process must also ensure that the new employees will add more value to the company through promoting its productivity and making it more competitive in its market. Since the systems and
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Theories in Media and Society Essay According to National academy of sciences (1999) a theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experimentation. In this light one gets to discuss the Structural functionalist theory and the Conflict Theory which are both theoretical perspectives found in the Media and Society. (a)(i) First and foremost, the Structural functionalist theory is amongst the theories found on the aspect of organization of society. This theory can also be referred to as Structural Functionalism, and it has the following assumptions. To begin with, the Structural Functionalist theory postulates or suggests that society is a complex system whose various parts (structures) work together to produce stability and solidarity.Ã These structures are a part of society because of their functionality in ensuring stability and solidarity. In other words, without their functionality in ensuring these two aspects mentioned prior, these structures would not be part of society.Ã To add on, Durkheim and Comte suggest that these parts of the society work together like the parts of a body for the benefit of society. In other words, one can say that these parts are inter-dependent, that is, they rely on each other to fully serve their purpose.Ã It is important for one to also note that this theory has two functionalities, and these are Manifest Functions and Latent Functions. In this aspect, Manifest functions in this case are those objective consequences contributing to the adjustment or adaptation of the system which are in tended and recognized by participants in the system. Examples include education, moral guidance, law and order maintenance. On the other hand, Latent functions are those functions that are neither intended nor recognized. In other words, they are somewhat less important as compared to Manifest Functions. Furthermore, organization of society theoretical perspectives also include the Conflict Theory. It has the following assumptions: The Conflict Theory suggests that society is made up of groups that are competing for scarce resources. In other words, this theory states that society is divided or disintegrated into various groups that scramble, if not fight for, these resources in order to survive be it socially, economically or politically. To add on, the conflict theory also suggests that power and inequality are the main characteristics of society and social groups are involved in power struggle (Karl Max). One can simply say that this means that the system called Society is patterned with power dynamics, and in those power dynamics are power struggles. Furthermore, this theory also states that this power struggle mentioned above, is a struggle for dominance amongst classes, genders, races, religions to mention but just a few. This simply means that in the entirety of society, there is the aspect of Ã¢â¬Å"survival of the fittestÃ¢â¬ in which the dominant ones survive and rule over the defeated or over the weak. InÃ addition, the conflict theory also assumes that there is social domination of subordinate groups through the power coercion of dominant groups. Furthermore, this theory also assumes that the dominant groups create rules for success and opportunity in society and they monopolize control, power, privilege and authority. In addition to the above mentioned, the conflict theory also assumes that the primary cause of social problems is the exploitation and oppression of subordinate groups by the dominant. A typical example is the conflict within the Ndebele State. It has 3 states, namely the Enhla, Ezansi and the Hole. The original Ndebele people were found in the upper class and they exploited some classes like the Hole for example and this led to a lot of conflict within the Ndebele society. Hence, it is typical for exploitation and oppression of subordinates to be the primary cause of social problems. One can say that these theories are valid in explaining the existence of, and the relationships between individuals and groups in society to a larger extent. To begin with, the assumptions of the structural functionalist theory are valid to a larger extent. The assumption that society is a complex system whose various parts (structures) work together to produce stability and solidarity is valid because it shows us that society has relationships, and that in their relationships, they have a goal which is to produce solidarity and stability. For example, the Zimbabwean society, the government in particular, always stresses on the need for the Zimbabwean society to be stable in terms its economy, and that it should maintain and promote solidarity. These two aspects are usually mentioned by the President of Zimbabwe R. G. Mugabe. To add on, one can say that the assumptions of the structural functionalistic theory are valid in explaining the existence of, and the relationships between individuals and groups in society. For example the one that states that society is made up of parts which work together like the parts of the body is a very practical assumption about societyÃ¢â¬â¢s relationships. One can argue that in society there are groups of people, for example workers, students, civil servants, aristocrats and so forth. One can give anÃ illustration by referring to the Great Zimbabwe State that once existed in Zimbabwe. Miners could not survive alone because they depended on blacksmiths to make them tools for digging and excavating. Thus this simply shows that indeed societyÃ¢â¬â¢s groups which are seen as parts in this theory, are inter-dependent on each other hence this theory is valid if not actually practical. Furthermore, these two theories are valid because they show us the existence of conflict within the society. The conflict theory states that society is made up of groups that compete for resources and this is very true and practical. A situation like this happened in Zimbabwe during the colonial era whereby whites were exploiting the resources available in Zimbabwe which eventually led to the Chimurenga war. The relationship between these two races was very hostile and sour because of the competition for these scarce resources. This war took place because there was intense competition for resources in the country and as such, this war was to settle the fight. Thus in essence, these theories are quite valid in explaining the existence of relationships in society. Society is made of classes that compete for scarce resources and this is best illustrated in the conflict theory. It states that in society, dominant classes oppress and exploit the lower classes which eventually leads to conflict. An example is the Apartheid Era in South Africa. The Boers were oppressing and exploiting the blacks and their resources. The blacks advocated for equality, through their icon Nelson Mandela. This sour between the blacks and the whites led to a serious conflict which was catalyzed by the competition for resources. Hence one can argue that these theories explain the existence of, and the relationships between individuals and groups in society to a larger extent. In addition, these theories are valid in explaining the relationships that exist in society to a larger extent. They enable one to fully understand the fact that conflict is part and parcel of society and that it is sometimes needed in order for development to occur. To add on, these theories also enhance oneÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of how society is divided and structured. ItÃ shows that society has groups and individuals who live together in relationships, and that in these relationships, they serve to achieve certain goals and objectives like solidarity for example. In a nutshell, the conflict and the social functionalist theory are theories that are very much socialistic and they help one to get the concept of how society is organized, how the members of society relate to each other in achieving their goals and also that conflict exists in society. These theories are somewhat a blue print of how society is organized and how its members are inter-dependent on each other to survive.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Okay, I admit this time of year is a guilty pleasure of mine, with the changing of the seasons. The crisp cool days and evenings let you cook hearty healthy meals that fill the home with such sumptuous, delicious smells. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the time of year for hot apple cider, pumpkins and families that get together. Harvest time used to be a time when all the hard work of the year was being stored up for the long cold months of winter. We recently had the pleasure of hearing: Ã¢â¬Å"Trick or treat, smell my feet, give me something good to eat.Ã¢â¬ Why do we say this? Where did this tradition come from? What is the reason for our dressing up, and the pumpkins that we carve? Who originally came up with this celebration and why? LetÃ¢â¬â¢s not forget the all-important slasher movies and TV specials. Although many people feel Halloween is not a holiday and should not be celebrated, I believe it is a holiday, because it is steeped in tradition, truly an American holiday, and a social revelry of merriment that everyone can enjoy. Murray Hope explains on Joelle's Sacred Grove Entrance website, that this ancient holiday celebration began with the Celts (people of Ireland, Scotland, Wales and England) approximately in the 5th century BCE. After the occupation of the British IsleÃ¢â¬â¢s many of the Roman pagan ways were added to this celebration such as their Goddess of harvest, Pomona whose sacred fruit is the apple. It is believed that this is why we celebrate the festivities with apple cider, bobbing for apples and candy apples (Wolf). This all lasted until Christianity decided to convert all pagans, and incorporated many of their holidays into the churches calendar. Pope Gregory IV was the first to try combining pagan ways within the Church so he crea... ...ngest Holidays." Suite101.com: Online Magazine and Writers' Network. 28 Sept. 2007. Web. October 8, 2010. Schaadt, Robert L. "Bats and Halloween - The Vindicator: News." The Vindicator: The Oldest Continuously Printing News Source in South Liberty County since 1887. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. "Should Christians Participate in Halloween? - ChristianAnswers.Net." Christian AnswersÃ ® NetworkÃ¢â ¢ (ChristianAnswers.Net): Multilingual Answers, Reviews, Ministry Resources, and More! [Home]. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. Skal, David J. Death Makes a Holiday. New York: Bloomsbury, 2002. Print. "Unusual Pumpkin Facts." Pumpkin Patch - Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Pumpkins! Web. October 8, 2010. Wolf, Spring. "The Pagan's Path ~ Witchcraft & Shamanism - The History Of Samhain / Halloween." The Pagan's Path ~ Education Network. 13 Oct. 2009. Web. October 8, 2010.
Monday, January 13, 2020
INTRODUCTION The researcher was an alumnus from a private secondary school in Legazpi City, he has been observing student violators facing real problems in the school. This give way to decide in this type of study, the willingness and interest to know the reality in students behaviour on what reasons why students violates the rules and regulations inside the school. At present, the researcher of this simple research is a first year student in A.B. Philosophy in Bicol University. Having this opportunity to learn the basic skill in writing under English 10 and as a final requirement in accomplishing the subject, the researcher never hesitate to present this simple and uncontrollable problems experience by teachers and parents on the child performances in the school. The chosen title, Reasons why students violate rules and regulations is something to use for reference by teachers and parents to discipline the child. This is a simple and humble work of a beginner, inspired by the teacher in this subject and the encouraging manner of the researcher family and friends. This work made everything easy for reference and guidelines both for teachers, parents and students. And the researcher is ready to any correction from this noble work, so to develop more on this special skill in writing. The 4th yr. students in secondary schools in Legazpi City, both in public and private schools experience student violating schools rules and regulations. Despite of the disciplinary measures of each school, students violates willingly. This work will define student violators and as teachers and parents of these poor students, both performances will be addressed. And the purposes of this study are to widen the concern for child performances in the school, and for teachers and parents to check and note for student violators in a school. SIGNIFICANCE In every heart, there is a need to discipline. Student violator is a heart that needs a support for discipline. Not only here in our own local school but worldwide. In every child officially enrolled in any school has the right to learn the social graces needed to developed self-discipline, to internalize discipline in every action and decision. The researcher would like to emphasize this simple yet uncontrollable problem among students to the local and national level. This study will also serve the purpose on reasons why the students violate rules and regulations, like the ones below: 1. Teachers and parents failed to implement a proper discipline among students. 2. The absence of recognition in every student profiles or portfolio. 3. Critical identification for every studentÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour, needs and reasons. 4. Over Ã¢â¬â protectiveness and misuse authority. Thus, the purpose of this research is to widen the awareness on reasons why the students violate rules and regulations, to be familiar of their performances, in support to teachers/parents to discipline properly the child through the check and note for student violators in school. As one challenge in education, the most important aspect is to discipline the child and eventually to internalize it. SCOPE AND DELIMITATION The study consists of 4th year students in Legazpi City, from Divine Word College of Legazpi High School Department. The main objective of the study is to identify the reasons on why the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s violates rules and regulations on their last year of study in the secondary school. The researcher limits the research to secondary students in Legazpi City and for the 4th year students only, both from Divine Word College of Legazpi High School Department. This is to refer for a feasible results and better interest for teachers and parents to watch the child and guide to gain a better performance in the school. CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature School is the training ground of any person officially enrolled to excel academically and for self-discipline to become a better individual. Schools provide the guidelines as disciplinary measures for students and for teacher supervisions. No school is exempted from student violators, very school year the school experience the difficulty in schools discipline. Teachers and parents are collaborators in disciplining the violators. DEFINITION OF TERMS The researcher likes to focus on the following definition of terms so as to attain the research better and simple. 1. School, is an institution designed for teaching the students (or pupils) under the direction of teachers. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/School)1 2. Student, is someone who attends an educational institution or someone who studies especially at a school. (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/student).2 3. Teacher, is the one who teaches in a school and a person especially hired by the school. (LearnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary)3 4. Violations, is to break a law or regulations intentionally or unintentionally. (Webster New Dictionary) 4 5. Parent, is the caretaker of their offspring. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parent)5 RELATED LITERATURE The act of doing something that is not allowed by a law or rule and the act of ignoring or inferring with a personÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. (LearnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary)6 In like manner, it is been an old story, when teen agers left home for school, they thrill at the first opportunity to test Ã¢â¬ their wingsÃ¢â¬ as a young adults.(SunSentinel.Com)7 freed from being under the all seeing eyes of their parents and often unwelcome supervision, judgements and penalties of their parents. Some young student turns successfully in their new found freedom, but others turns violators due to lack of discipline and maturity as well. In this case, the researcher has discovered some basic solutions for this part. As the purpose of this study: 1. To widened the concern for child performances in the school 2. To create teachers and parents check and note for students violators in the school. With this basic concepts, the researcher, emphasize the need to all records of a child performance while in the school, to prioritize the violators and teachers are encouraged to identify students and informed the parents. Likewise, parents are ask to become responsible to check and notes their child performances in the school. Internationally, some violators failed to confess the causes of their irresponsible acts in the school, Some are victims of maltreatments of parents which the students denies all truth and sometimes violators are victims of their own teachers like in Darling Town state a primary school teacher who was previously accused of attempting to Ã¢â¬Å"dackÃ¢â¬ a student and investigated for Ã¢â¬Å"kissing and cuddlingÃ¢â¬ (couriermail.com.au)8, What effects will it brings to a child in the future? It could be a lost to authority in the school and even to parents and which could turn to become violators in the school. The reason some people break rules is because it may make them look cool, or it may be funny, but sometimes people just donÃ¢â¬â¢t know better. Remember that everyone was raised differently, so donÃ¢â¬â¢t discriminate, Just try to get along. And sometimes getting in trouble is fun, or sometimes worth it, it depends on who you are. (http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_do_some _students_break_school_rules)9. Schools have policies that are being implemented for the general welfare of its constituents. These policies provide a set of rules that the students, teachers, etc. should follow. These rules are necessary for the order and uniformity of the students within the school premises. Even with the presence of these rules, some of the students violate them disregarding the sanctions that go along with it. The word policy originated from the Latin word Ã¢â¬Å"politiaÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"polityÃ¢â¬ . Defined as a definite course of action adopted for the sake of expediency, facility, etc.; an action or procedure conforming to or considered with reference to prudence or expediency. (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/policy)10. Here are some violations that are commonly violated by students, students skip school. Students skip school; it is the behaviour that the children have not enjoyed to learn then they avoid or escape from the school. In my opinion, I totally agree this problem is occurred from several reasons which their family and teachers should coordinate to solve this problem. First reason which may affect student to abstain from school; the child cannot understand the lesson, then they lack of interest in learning and a focus on learning. So, it may make them to have an experiencing failure in school and lower academic achievement. In additional, they may not have the close friends and their friends may threaten them. Second reason, their family is unhappy, poor or rich but lack of love and care from their parents. And the last reason is school and teacher, they do not understand children. There are strict rules and teacher is an authoritarian and inflexible or teacher may punish severely student . Also some teacher has the teaching method as not interesting. These reasons should influence students to keep away from school. For the ways to solve the problem, family and teachers should be the main person to solve the problem, thus I thought that it should begin at home first. Whenever the parents have been known the disappointment because of their child, then they should calm their anger first to find the cause of the children leaving school. The parents should not refer to the question Ã¢â¬Å"WhyÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ to their child but the parents should begin with love and understanding, and ready to forgive them. Then, the parents begin to solve the problems and engage with the children and the school in order to provide opportunities and activities to reduce the value feeling of children and attitude of children since someone thought that they devalue.11. The next thing to be discussed is about why kids join Gangs; this can be also one reason why students are motivated to violate school rules. Why do Kids join Gangs? Factors motivating kids to join gangs vary individual to individual. A multitude of social and economic reasons can be involved. Power, status, security, friendship, family substitute, economic profit, substance abuse influences, and numerous other factors can influence kids to join gangs. Gang members also cross all socio-economic backgrounds and boundaries regardless of age, sex, race, economic status, and academic achievement. Gang violence typically involves a larger number of individuals Gang-related violence tends to be more retaliatory and escalates much more quickly than non-gang violence Gang activity is usually more violent in nature and often involves a greater use of weapons. School and public safety officials must look at gang activity differently and not as one-on-one, isolated incidents. Otherwise, the problem can escalate so quickly that a school lunchroom fight between rival gang members will escalate into a potential drive-by shooting just hours later at school dismissal. School officials must still discipline individual students involved in gang offenses on a case-by-case basis based upon their individual actions in violating school rules, but educators must see the forest with the trees and recognize that these offenses are interrelated and part of a broader pattern of gang-related misconduct and violence.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Introduction American writer Gertrude Stein uses Ã¢â¬Å"There is no there thereÃ¢â¬ in the book EverybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s Autobiography to describe Oakland. She spent her girlhood in Oakland, but she perceived that Oakland was inauthentic. When she mentioned France, where she lived most of her life, she said: Ã¢â¬Å"It is not real but it is really thereÃ¢â¬ (Stein 1970: 2). France is more tangible to her than her nation. What does the nation mean to Stein? What is the essence of nation? Watson posits that Ã¢â¬Å"a nation is a community of people, whose members are bound together by a sense of solidarity, a common culture, a national consciousnessÃ¢â¬ (Watson 1997: 1). A more familiar definition was coined by Anderson: Ã¢â¬Å"It is an imagined political community and imagined as bothÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"The press always takes on the form and coloration of the social and political structures within which it operatesÃ¢â¬ (Siebert 1963: 2). However, the influence of the nation d iffers from different media systems. Hallin and Mancini, in their book, lay out a framework for comparing media systems. They select four major dimensions: the media market, the political parallelism, the journalistic professionalism and the state intervention system. (Hallin Mancini 2004: 21). In order to analyse how ideas of the nation can be related to media systems, this paper selects two dimensions from the frame: the political parallelism and the journalistic professionalism. By looking at different relationships between the nation and media system in these two models, this article elaborates the latent national framing of media system and the possible professionalism of media. Whereas, the practical circumstances are far more complicated than two models; in order to be specific, the paper just select two perspectives. Media are magnifiers? In order to illustrate how media maintain the continuous national consciousness among the public, it is imperative to know the traits of media system. According to Meyrowitz, media are compared to Ã¢â¬Å"conduits, languages and environmentsÃ¢â¬ (Meyrowitz 1993: 56). These three metaphors are woven together in media system, building the national consensus together. On the basis of MeyrowitzÃ¢â¬â¢s theory: mediaShow MoreRelatedMedia s Portrayal Of Islamic Extremists During The Middle East1178 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages2001, U.S. citizens were shocked that over 2,900 people were dead because of Islamic extremists (Kean, et al. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States). More deaths occurred in the Paris and San Bernardino attacks. Tensions between the U.S. and Islamic extremists have not yet subsided. 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